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Health Guide – Understanding How the NHS Works

The National Health Service (NHS) was setup by the government to provide healthcare for all residents of the UK and is funded by public taxes. This service is based on people’s need for healthcare instead of their ability to pay for it. Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have their own separate NHS services.The following guide will explain in simple terms how the NHS is structured, so you can better understand how to get the treatment that you or a member of your family need.Department of Health and Its AuthoritiesThe NHS is run by the Department of Health, which reports to the Secretary of State for Health.In total, the Department of Health is responsible for NHS and social care delivery through the Strategic Health Authorities.Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs)These Authorities supervise the Trusts that run NHS services in their local areas. There are 10 of them in total and their responsibilities include developing as well as integrating plans to improve health services.The main Trusts that the Health Authorities watch over are as follows:Primary Care Trusts (PCTs)These are your first port of call in providing care when you have a medical problem and need to visit a doctor. There are 152 Primary Care Trusts and they control 80 per cent of the NHS budget. PCTs make sure there are enough health services for people in their local area. In total, their services include providing hospitals, dentists, opticians, mental health services, screening, pharmacies, NHS walk-in centres and patient transport.Acute TrustsThese Trusts have the responsibility of managing hospitals to ensure they’re of high quality and efficient at spending money. This can also include such services such as training health professionals at universities and providing health centres, clinics or care at home in local communities.Hospital and Foundation TrustsAll in all, there are 290 NHS Hospital Trusts who oversee 1 600 NHS hospitals and specialist care centres.Foundation Trusts, which total 83 at present, are a new form of NHS hospital specifically tailored to local needs.Ambulance TrustsThere are 13 Ambulance Trusts in England, while Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have separate versions. These Trusts provide emergency access to health care – their emergency control room prioritises calls for an ambulance and decides what kind of response to send. They also provide transport for patients needing to get to hospital for treatment.Care TrustsCare Trusts are a result of the NHS and local authorities agreeing to work in partnership to create a closer relationship between health and social care.Mental Health TrustsAs per their title, these Trusts deliver health and social care services for people with mental health problems. These include health screening plus counselling and psychological therapiesSpecial Health AuthoritiesUnlike Strategic Health Authorities who focus on local services, the Special Health Authorities provide an NHS health service to the whole of England or the UK.Their divisions include the following. Agencies:Medicines, Healthcare Products and Regulatory Agency (MHRA)The MHRA grants licences for medicines so they can be sold and regulates both medicines and medical devices in the UK to ensure they meet certain standards of safety, quality, performance and effectiveness.National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)NICE provides national guidance on the prevention and treatment of poor health. It also creates the guidelines on whether or not certain treatments are available on the NHS in England and Wales.National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA)NPSA consists of three divisions that are specifically designed to help improve patient safety in the NHS throughout the UK.Health Protection Agency (HPA)The HPA has three centres which together protect the UK against infectious diseases and other dangers to public health such as chemical and radiation risks. This includes providing specialist training to help prepare emergency services nationwide for major incidents.ConclusionThe above overview on how the NHS is structured will help you understand just who to contact for your specific healthcare and safety needs. To make your research even easier, use Health Guides to find contact details for the various centres that can offer you the right treatment.

Flights From LAX to SFO – The Quickest Way From LA to SF

The easiest way to find flights from LAX to SFO is to use a travel fare aggregation site and enter your departure and return dates. You can specify whether you want to search for economy flights or business-class flights.There are several airlines that offer this route between the two popular California cities. Typically, the cheapest time to book a nonstop flight is approximately 17 -21 days in advance. For flights with a connection, it is actually cheapest to book 90 days in advance. There usually isn’t much of a price difference between purchasing a round trip flight and one way flight.California is a big state – there are 347 miles between Los Angeles and San Francisco. A nonstop flight is usually just under one and a half hours. Flights from LAX to SFO are cheapest during the months of July and October, and the most expensive in June. The price is consistent for the other months.Some of the many airlines that offer flights include:• United Airlines• American Airlines• Alaska Airlines• AeroMexico• Virgin America• Ethiopian Airlines• All Nippon Airways• Singapore Airlines• JetBlue• WOW Air• Frontier• DeltaUnited provides nearly 1/3 of the direct flights. Seattle, WA is the most popular connecting city for the flight. Wednesday is the busiest day to fly to SFO from LAX. The most reliable airlines that have the highest percentage of on-time arrivals at SFO are Delta, American, and Alaska Airlines.Car Rental After Your FlightThere are plenty of car rental and public transportation options to help you get from the airport to your hotel in San Francisco. You can even combine car rental and hotel room with the price of airfare. Sometimes it’s cheaper to do so than to try to book everything separately. There are tons of budget hotels and inns to choose from. SF is an amazing city with must-see sights like the Golden Gate Bridge, Fisherman’s Wharf, and Alcatraz Prison.Need to leave your car behind in Los Angeles? Parking at LAX is reasonably priced. The airport offers short-term, long-term, and economy parking options. If you would rather take public transportation, you can call one of the several cab companies that serve the airport, or take a free shuttle from the Metro Green Line Station.Flights from LAX to SFO are available throughout the day and night, so there is room for flexibility. You should easily be able to find an affordable plane ticket, regardless of your itinerary. While last-minute discounts are rare, you never know when one might pop up.Use Travelocity’s search function to find and compare discount flights from LAX to SFO. The site is very easy to use and you can plan your entire trip. You might also be able to get budget accommodation and car rental by using Travelocity coupon codes.

Thinking of Buying an Electric Wall Heater

Looking to buy an electric wall heater, but don’t know were to start. Here is a simple buyers guide that will help you make the correct buying decisionBuyers GuideWhen shopping for an electric wall heater, for a new construction job (not replacing an old heater) there are several things to consider.1. Heater sizing by wattage
2. Voltage – basic guidelines
3. Noise Level of the heater
4. Thermostat / Timer
5. Looks of the grille
6. Heater location
7. Recessed vs. Surface mounting
8. Feature to = Look for or avoid.1. Heater sizing (how big is the room you want to heat)
The first and most important step is “how big is the room you want to heat “The heater has to be sized so it can heat the room on the coldest night of the year. The quick rule of thumb is for house build in the last 20 years, or older houses that have be renovated with more insulation, and new doors and window is 10 watts per sq ft for ceiling 8′ or lower or 1.25 watts per cubic foot for ceilings higher then 9′Example small room:
Square footage = 10′W x 15′L = 150 (standard 7 to 8 foot ceiling)
Watts per Sq Ft = 10 to 12 watts (new construction few windows use 10 watts)
150 sq ft x 10 watts = 1,500 watt heater (select a 1,500 to 2,000 watt heater)Example larger room:
Square footage = 25′W x 15′L = 375 (standard 7 to 8 foot ceiling)
Watts per Sq Ft = 10 to 12 watts (new construction few windows use 10 watts)
375 sq ft x 10 watts = 3,750 watt heater (select a 4,000 watt heater)
Always give yourself a safety factor by averaging up.Cubic Foot Rule of Thumb,
Room size 10′ H x 15′w W 12′L = 1800 cubic ft
1800 cubic Ft x 1.25(your constant) = 2250
This room will need a minimum of 2250 watts of heatPlease visit of size chart page for more info, if you would like a true “heat load” look for software called “Manual J” online or consult an architect or mechanical engineer2. Voltage
Knowing your, and having the correct voltage, is right up there as one of the most important thing to know and understand before you purchase and electric wall heater. Electric wall heaters come in 120 and 240 volts. Some electric wall heaters only come in 120 volts, and some only come in 240. Most homes in the United States have both 120v and 240v in there house, If you have a electric stove, range, dryer or water heater in your home those are all running on 240 voltage. A standard 120 volt wall heater comes in 500 to 1,500 watts which can heat a room between (50 to 150 sq ft room) if you have a room bigger then 150 sq ft you have to have a 240 volt heater. A standard 240 volt wall heater comes in 1000 to 4,800 watts which can heat a room from (100 to 480 sq ft room).A common over site is buying and or installing a wall heater with the wrong voltage If you install a e heater to the wrong voltage bad things can happen.- 120v to a 240v heater will give you of the wattage.
- 240v to a 120v heater will burnout the heater and void the warranty.If you are not sure on your voltage you will want to consult a licensed electrician. We stock almost every heater you see on line and ship the same day if in stock so we can get it to you pretty fast( FYI Notes ):
- 110 volts, 115 volts, 120 volts, 125 volts
- (All four voltages will work with the same heater)
- 220 volts, 230 volts, 240 volts, 250 volts
- (All four voltages will work with the same heater)
- 208 volts is NOT the same as 240 volts – it’s a total different3. Noise level
All fan forced wall heaters will make a noise. I tell customers over the phone when browsing our website the more expensive the wall heaters the quieter its going to be (this rule does not apply to our commercial grade wall heaters with a CFM grater then 100 ) because the internal parts are of a higher quality. If noise is not an issue any heater within correct wattage and voltage you parameters will work.4. Looks of the grille
White this one is subjective, it is an important part of the buying process is the looks of the heater. Every heater we have except the Broan WH9815 is made with a metal grille with a powder coated painted finish. If you have question on the color of a certain heater feel free to call us5. Thermostat
Controlling a wall heater can be done with a built-in or wall thermostat. Certain models have the option of one or the other, while some just have option for just built in or just wall mounted only…If you are not sure call or email usThe built-in thermostat the knob is mounted on the outside of the heater. It works just like a wall mounted heater by turning it clockwise you turn the power on and you set the desired room temperature. Turn it counterclockwise you will lower the desired temperature wanted and if you turn it all the way to the left it will turn the unit off.Wall thermostats are not available on all wall heaters, for those that do offer them this is how they work. A wall mounted thermostat is usually mounted on the other side of the room. A 120v or 240 volt power line is pulled behind the sheetrock to the wall heater. To set the temperature of the heater once again turn the knob clockwise to you desired room temperature.When using a wall thermostat with this wall heater be sure to place it on an internal wall, ideally across from the windows. Avoid drafty areas, direct sunlight, and other heaters & electronics devices that can put out heat like computers or TV’s. Make sure you don’t place it behind a shelf or too close to pictures what will affect airflow around the thermostat’s sensors.6. Heater location in your room
Find a spot on an interior wall close to the outside wall. Make sure you avoid any obstructions like a chair or couch, or hanging items like drapes. By using a nearby wall you can avoid cutting into your wall insulation. The idea is to heat your cold wall first and the rest of the room will fall in line.FYI Notes:
The factories recommend the heater should be mounted at least 8″ from the floor, 8″ from an adjacent wall, and if you are mounting it high at hast to be at least 8″ from the ceiling, 3 feet from furniture… If you have question on mounting location(s) please consult your local or town or city code inspector for the final answer7. Recessed vs. Surface mounting
- Recessed mounting simply means you cut a hole in the sheet rock wall.
- Surface mounting on a brick or block wall, your heater will mount on the wall instead of inside the wall.8. Feature to look for or avoid.
- Back box include – Look for it – All heaters have back boxes but some times you can order them separately. The back box separates the heating element from touching the interior wall or insulation. Plus it’s a code violation.
- Thermostat operation ranges – Look for it – Some people want to run the heater at the lost temperature to keep the water pipes from freezing. If the operating range of 50 to 90 F, the heater will not go down to 40 F no mater how low you set it the thermostat.
- Summer Fan Switch – Avoid – This is used for commercial building applications, all it means it that the fan will run but the heater will remain off.
- Heavy Duty Grille – Avoid – Another commercial building application, the greater the foot traffic the higher the odds of someone smashing in the front grille of your wall heater. Unless you have a hotel dolly rolling around your home you more than likely don’t need the added cost of a heavy duty front grille.
- Tamper resistant built-in thermostat Avoid – Another commercial building application, this is used on office buildings, banks, hotel front vestibules.

Exercising Humility: What We Don’t Know

Over the millennium, humanity has amassed an enormous knowledge and an incredible understanding of world.Starting with a simple thing like discovering how to chip a rock to make a tool, we have advanced our learning so today we have sciences, arts, humanities, engineering, theology, production management and on and on.While lesser animals rely on strength, or physical dexterity, or speed, or instinct, or at times cunning and simple intelligence, humanity relies on its deep, rich and multi-layered store house of knowledge, and our ability to expand, deepen and utilize that knowledge.But if we look at what we know, and compare that to what still remains to uncover, how far along are we? How much don’t we know, that is left to find out?I would and will argue that enormous amounts remain to discover. In fact, amounts so enormous that we should display, and should feel compelled to show, significant humility about the scope of our knowledge, and how much could remain to know.So what don’t we know? What are key and significant gaps in our understanding? Let’s examine that. But to start, a definition of “know” is in order.Pragmatic Approach: Criteria for Mankind KnowingFor our criteria, we will gently side step the couple thousand years of philosophical debate on “knowing”, and turn to a pragmatic definition. For this discussion, mankind will know something when 1) widespread concurrence exists about that something’s features, structures and mechanisms and 2) significant understanding exists on how that something comes about, how it operates and what impact and uses it has.As an example, humanity knows about steel. We know its chemical composition, its properties, how to make it, and how to use it in buildings, vehicles and machines. Every day, in dozens and hundreds of interactions and activities, humanity demonstrates that at a practical and pragmatic level, we possess a working knowledge of steel.As a counter example – and this will be our first major unknown – humanity does not understand spatial singularities. No consensus exists about their properties, what structure they have, and how they function. We have theories, but they stand now as incomplete and unverified.So let’s turn to the critical unknowns, starting with spatial singularities.SingularitiesBlack holes. Though not an object of serious study, or even any study, a century ago, these objects now garner intense and spirited focus. A black hole, of course, contains matter so dense that no object inside its grasp – i.e. inside its event horizon – can escape.Big Bang. Though not even conceived a century ago, the Big Bang now reigns as the prevailing theory for the origin of our universe. The theory postulates that our actuality emerged from an incredibly hot, dense state that expanded not into space, but created space itself as it expanded.What underlies, and bedevils, both these astronomical phenomena? Singularities. A singularity represents a “location” in space where density becomes infinite. And that leaves us in a bind. General relativity, the reigning theory on gravity, allows the mass in a singularity to collapse to a conceptually incomprehensible size of nothing. And quantum mechanics, the reigning theory of matter, can not handle gravity at the strength present in singularities.And that underscores the issue – we don’t understand singularities. Our best current theories lack equations to describe them, and conceptually we lack a consistent vision or image of what happens inside them. Now we do have understandings (some) of black holes that surround singularities and of the Big Bang after its postulated emergence from a singularity, but the actual entity itself – the singularity – we have only tentative approaches at explanation, none confirmed.Now does this matter? Steel matters – we build things from it. But we don’t use singularities for much. A singularity appears to be just that, a singular outlier within the general span of physical existence.But accounting for that peculiarity, that outlier, may involve significant revisions in mainline theories in physics. And singularities do not stand alone in putting stress on the current physics paradigms. Dark matter, dark energy, the fine-tuned nature of physical constants – these phenomena also represent nagging outliers, not yet incorporated in our theories.In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, physics underwent a conceptual “revolution” as theories emerged on relativity, quantum theory, the structure of atomic particles and the like. Singularities, and its brethren outliers, could trigger a similar upending. And while we might not use singularities themselves in our technology, the altered theories of physics that explain singularities could be, likely will be, useful, even revolutionary, in terms of scientific and practical impacts.ConsciousnessWe are aware of our world, and aware of our desires, and aware that we are aware. Compared to just about anything, we are sure of our awareness and consciousness. It is with us all the time, and in fact in some sense is us.But what is it, and how does it occur? One can envision physically following light entering the eye and measuring the chain of neurons that fire in the brain. But in those measurements of wavelength, and ions, and voltages, where is consciousness? Where is the sensation of red, for example? And that so far stands as a stumbling block. Your consciousness – your experience of red, or joy, or desire to climb Mr. Everest – your consciousness is decidedly a first person experience. No third-person measurement can yet be done that allows others to partake in your experience.Consider computers. We can program them for monstrously complex calculations. But we can not program them to be conscious. Consider a bat. We understand how it uses sound echoes for location and flight, but we have essentially no concept of what the bat experiences as it uses echo-location. Consider someone without sight. They can study the physical processes of vision, but no amount of study provides them the experience of sight. Similarly no amount of explanation allows the sighted to experience the mental mappings of sound, smell and touch the sightless use to navigate the world.This ephemeral nature of consciousness, this inability to measure it objectively, this sense that consciousness floats out there not a physical thing, these features have rendered – and continue to render – consciousness an enigma. While we each individually can sense our own consciousness, collectively we have not yet built a common theory for what it is, what causes it, and how to detect, measure, fix, alter or augment it.But what significance lies in this lack of understanding? After all, our lack of understanding of consciousness in no way prevents each of us from having consciousness.But imagine a bit. Imagine if by understanding consciousness we could build a collective consciousness, in a beneficial and moral manner, so that we could share not just words, but the basic qualia of feeling. If individuals could feel each other’s feelings, individuals might, most likely would, become more caring, more ethical, more humane.Image if computers could be conscious. Certainly we face great philosophical and practical concerns with granting machines consciousness, but again let’s project mankind could and would execute this in a beneficial, ethical and controllable manner. With computers as conscious allies (think of Data on Star Trek), humanity might benefit.Image if computers gain consciousness on their own, independent of humans. An understanding of consciousness would help in managing such a scenario.Even on a more near-term and pragmatic level, an evolving understanding of consciousness would help us understand ourselves, assist in mental illness and wellness, and satisfy a curiosity about what makes us work and what makes mankind unique.The Initiation of LifeOn our world, life flourishes in abundance. Plants, insects, sea creatures, land animals, bacteria, mankind, and more and more, thrive in every possible location on Earth.And we understand significant parts of this life. We have identified cellular mechanisms and metabolic processes and evolutionary chains and reproductive systems, to touch on just part of our knowledge.But we do have a piece that by and large remains elusive – how this all started. Certainly comprehensive theories exist, and certainly experiments demonstrate that complex organic compounds arise from simple compounds, under favorable conditions. But unlike steel, or bridges, or legislation, or regulations, items we can in practice produce, for good or bad, no understanding exists on how to produce life from non-life.Basic questions such as the role of asteroids, the possibility of imported organics from other planets, the conditions present on Earth during various formative eras, and whether several strains of different types of life (not using DNA/RNA for example) emerged, remain only partially answered.Again, what is the practical significance? Life exists, in abundance. Our lack of understanding on its initiation does not diminish, alter or impact the current cornucopia of life in existence now. Might this just be a nice to know?Possibly. But understanding how life started, and by extension how to initiate life, likely will garner major practical benefits. Understanding how to generate life could provide new foods, new fuels, new medicines, and other possibilities not even imagined.On a larger level, understanding how life starts would provide a sense of how rare or not rare life is. We have a deep curiosity about that. Understanding the mechanisms of life’s initiation would satisfy that curiosity, and by extension would impact our theological and metaphysical tenets. If life is hard to come by, that has one set of implications, and if not, another, likely a profoundly different set of implications.The Future of the Human FormSince the dawn of culture, humanity has altered its living condition with its intelligence and technology. Clothes, crops, buildings, machines, medicines, electronics, vehicles, energy production, all represent ways in which mankind has used its resources and expertise to ease and improve its life and living condition.But the human form has remained basically unaltered. Our key body components – bones, muscles, organs – do not differ substantially in location, function or configuration from humans living six, or sixty, or even six hundred millennia earlier. We still eat animal and plant life. We still give live birth. Our life expectancy, though longer, still measures decades, not centuries. Despite medicines, we still succumb to disease and infirmity. We retain the benefit, but also the limitation, of five senses. Our brain enables language, but still not telepathy. We can envision the future, but still can not perform calculations in our head with more than a handful of numbers to a handful of significant digits.We stand now at a cusp. We are entering an era where technological advances will enable alteration of the human form. Mankind has never possessed that capability.And we don’t know the outcome of our use of that capability.We could alter the human form through genetic engineering. We could augment our bodies with electro-mechanical implants and additions. We could advance our intelligence through integration of electronics. We could transfer our essence into a virtual world. We could even, not likely but possible, discover other intelligent life, and through that discovery in some unforeseen way leverage that to alter our human form.Mankind could emerge in a form from science fiction, or as something beyond anything we can imagine, or maybe not so dramatic but significantly smarter, stronger and longer lived.Multiple paths exist. But we don’t know which one, or ones, we will, or even will be able to, follow. I would say we don’t even have forecasts, or even approximations.As before, how does this concern us now? These possibilities remain unachievable for today, or even for a generation, or several generations.These concern us now because the research on these possibilities has started now, or will start soon. To the degree these possibilities raise ethical or cultural questions, those questions need consideration now. For example, if we develop mental augments, will the cost make the augments only available to the wealthy?When these developments do emerge, they of course could, likely will, radically transform humanity. The possibilities boggle the mind. In ten thousand years, will we need sex for reproduction? Will we be more silicon than carbon? Will we have lives that extend centuries? Will we have direct mind-to-mind communication?And though these possibilities only exist for now as concepts, or subjects of research, the possibilities and technologies behind them have achieved a certain critical mass. They are likely enough we must include them in our discussion. The great religions and philosophies of the world prescribe life styles and actions to achieve salvation or attain fulfillment or gain eternal existence. In view of the potential for mankind to control its basic form, and possibly attain these otherwise supernatural goals via technology, do we need to fundamentally reinterpret those religious and philosophical prescriptions? Or maybe even discard them?The Nature of the SpiritualBillions of individuals hold to a faith in a reality and order beyond that which we experience. The great religions and spiritual philosophies – Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, among others – teach of Gods and existences beyond our daily actuality.But despite the span and depth of these teachings, does humanity “know” the nature of those transcendental realms? Do we share a common vision of their essence and workings? We must answer no – we do not share a common objective view of the spiritual.When a mother gives birth, we witness an almost miraculous, and certainly glorious, occurrence. But despite any wonder, we all see and hear the same event, and all agree that a new child has arrived. When a natural disaster occurs, though tragic and unfortunate, all can see and witness the devastation. Every day, uncountable common experiences occur in our actuality which people know and agree on in common.Despite faith, and revelations, and spiritual texts, and inner spiritual feelings, and miracles, that is not the case for the spiritual. This does not claim the spiritual does not exist. Very simply, to the degree it exists, humanity does not have what would count as knowledge of it, as defined here.This lack of a common vision stems from more than just the different perspectives of differing religions and philosophies. With the spiritual, we encounter, individually and collectively, a conceptual barrier. Current dogmas envision God as infinite, timeliness, unbounded and describe our spiritual realm as transcendent and eternal. Mankind, in contrast, is temporally bound, physically-constrained, finite, limited. Mankind thus lacks the required experiences and intellectual framework to visualize a supreme being and a supernatural dominion as they actually are. To draw an analogy, for us to understand the spiritual parallels in difficulty to that of having a butterfly understand a space ship.Again, as before, what is the issue? The great religions continue on, and the peoples of the world continue in their faith, knowing and accepting that the spiritual involves great mystery and many unknowns.However, religions and philosophies, almost by definition, strive for the truth. So for the religions and philosophies, there is an issue. Though they realize that a true understanding of the spiritual likely lies beyond world-bound humanity, they still endeavor by their very nature for as deep and broad a vision of the spiritual as achievable.And organized religion is not without stress. For many individuals, modern science and secular culture provide for a more logical belief system. For them, God and the spiritual become unnecessary, non-existent. And while some, even many, secular adherents exhibit a bias against religion, individuals can come to a non-God belief conscientiously, after evenhanded reflection and deep thought.The issue of the unknowability of the spiritual thus presents a pragmatic issue. In the face of secular belief systems, how do religions present a compelling and holistic vision, when fundamental parts of that vision reach into the unassailable spiritual realm? This challenge will grow, since the depth and breadth of purely secular views expand daily. While some may not have concern if religion dwindles, religion has and in the future will likely play a critical role in culture, and may hold important pieces of the truth.Other UnknownsOther serious philosophical and scientific unknowns exist:
Do we possess free will?
Why did the universe being with such low entropy?
How do we interpret quantum mechanics?
Does other intelligent life exist?
Is time real?
Type these items into a search engine, and the results will show a diversity of answers, and none a definitive answer.The ImplicationsLet’s summarize then, starkly, what remains unknown.Lacking an understanding of singularities, we don’t know how existence started. Lacking an understanding of consciousness, we can’t explain the core of our essence. Looking into the past, we don’t know how life started. Looking into the future, we don’t know what we will become. Looking above, we have no firm grasp on the supernatural.We don’t know if we make free choices. We don’t know why we benefited from an astounding orderly, low entropy universe. We don’t have a metaphysical grasp of the quantum stuff of which everything consists. We don’t know if we are alone in the universe. And we remain uncertain about the nature of this river called time.Thus we don’t know a good many fairly fundamental things – actually we don’t know a great many fundamental things.Now, no doubt, while fundamental, these unknowns do not act as showstoppers, certainly not on a pragmatic level. Even with these unknowns, what we do know allows us, day-in-and-day out, to produce steel, grow food, run governments, generate electricity, and otherwise perform the hundreds of daily activities needed to support a world of billions.So while we can’t answer the big questions, we successfully answer the little questions. What’s the issue then?We have several, then.Though day-to-day our knowledge sustains billions, few would argue the current world condition is perfect, or even much better than minimally satisfactory. Thus, room for improvement exists, much, much room, and thus at a practical level, answers to the big questions would most likely provide insights to do the daily activities better.Further, I might argue that our ability to perform the hundreds of daily activities for survival rests on a knife edge. Certainly even without answering the big questions, mankind will (likely) continue to advance. But incremental technological improvements may not prove sufficient to keep mankind from slipping on that knife edge. New fundamental knowledge will likely prove crucial for mankind to progress on a less tenuous basis.Then we face the more ephemeral, but nonetheless troubling and potentially dangerous, issue of conflicting worldviews. A worldview, to review, embodies the core beliefs with which an individual or collection of individuals, filters, interprets and organizes events and objects.And different worldviews exist, no doubt. Differences exist on the reality of a deity, on optimism on mankind’s future, on an individual’s continuation after death.For the most part, individuals respect and tolerate these differences.But in important ways we don’t. We can be vehement, intolerant, condescending, belittling, and otherwise arrogant towards worldviews we judge uninformed or inferior to our own. Even without reference to the worldview of others, we can be oblivious, or complacent, or close-minded about our own world views.At the extreme, we can go to conflict, verbally and physically, to the point of death and war, over differences.But if so many questions, not just trivial questions, but fundamental questions, stand as unanswered, can we be so content and sure in any world view to look down on the worldview of others as ignorant? If so much remains unknown, how can we “know” that our way of looking at the world is so correct to disdain others?I would answer we can’t, we can’t be sure, and we can’t know. With so many fundamental unknowns, our worldviews are tentative, provisional.What does this imply? This implies that we should have humility. And understanding. And patience. And openness. As deeply held, and deeply considered, as our world view might be, others hold to equally considered worldviews. Neither they nor we can definitively “prove” our world view correct, since the correctness of a world view almost certainly depends on the answers to the fundamental questions covered here. And we don’t know those answers.We thus should maintain wonder and curiosity. The tentative nature of our knowledge, and thus our worldviews, requires we look less sideways to compete or defeat other world views, and look more forward and outward with wonder and curiosity to improve our own world view.